The JRC issued a MARS (Monitoring Agricultural ResourceS) crop monitoring bulletin focusing on the winter hardening and frost damage of winter cereals in Europe.
The bulletin reports that the hardening (frost tolerance) of winter cereals has improved substantially in central Europe and the Black Sea region due to the colder-than-usual weather conditions in January.
Winter cereals in southern and western Europe are generally not hardened.
Frost damages have been relatively minor so far, and, on the basis of the latest weather forecast, no further frost-kill damages are expected between now and the end of January.
click the image below to download the Bulletin